-- Four --
The Bible has many different authors.
The Qur'an has one author.

The Bible has many different authors.  The Fundamentalists say that the Bible is the "Word of God" and therefore has one author, God.  But when I was young, being raised as a Christian I was told that such men as Moses, David, Samuel, Solomon, Jeremiah and Daniel — the prophets — had written the books of the Old Testament.  This is still being taught, even by Fundamentalists.  ["Readers Guide," pp. 3-5]  Nevertheless, according to the Encyclopaedia Britannica, the Oxford Companion to the Bible, and other authorities, most of the Old Testament authors are unknown.

Starting in the nineteenth century, biblical scholarship has determined that at least four different unknown authors composed various parts of the first five books of the Bible.  According to The Bible, the Qur’an and Science by Maurice Bucaille, a 1941 study of these books found a total of twenty-two contributors and later additions by another eight different authors.  [Bucaille, p. 12]  Many of the other books of the Old Testament show the same pattern of multiple authorship with later additions.

A casual glance at the New Testament shows that these 27 books are attributed to ten different authors.  Most of the New Testament authors seem to be known, at least by name — Matthew, Mark, Luke, John, Peter, James and Paul — but, in fact, the authorship of the Gospels is uncertain.  Much of the other New Testament writings are of uncertain authorship.  With the exception of the epistles of Paul, authorship of New Testament books is usually unclear.

The Qur'an has one author.  All Muslims believe that Allah — the one referred to as "God" in the King James Bible [Scofield, note 1 to Malachi 3:18] — is the author of the Qur'an.  Non-Muslims believe that Prophet Muhammad wrote the Qur'an.  This would be forgery, since the Qur'an itself claims to be revelation from Allah.

Unlike the authors of the biblical writings, mostly unknown or poorly known, Muhammad is well known.  He was illiterate and unlearned.  He had such a reputation for honesty that he earned the nickname "al-Ameen" — "The Trustworthy".  His people knew little or nothing of Christian or Jewish scriptures.  After he received "the Call" (at the age of 40), his life was closely observed and carefully recorded, including occasions when he received revelation.  How could he have written the Qur'an?  [Ali, Religion; Denffer; Haykal; Pickthall, Introduction; Rauf]

Next Page

Previous Page

Selected Bibliography

Twelve Differences Home Page
Bible and Qur'an Home Page